Optically enhanced solar efficiency By NED Students ( ALI RAZA KHAN, SARA HUMAYU, YUMNA BATOOL, BEENA AFZAL )
TEAM NAME: “THE INNOVATORS”
PROJECT NAME: OPTICALLY ENHANCED SOLAR EFFECIENCY
- ALI RAZA KHAN
- SARA HUMAYUN
- YUMNA BATOOL
- BEENA AFZAL
FACULTY NAME: ELECTRONICS: UNIVERSITY: N.E.D UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES TECHNOLOGY
Solar energy is the newest and most cost effective way to satisfy the huge energy needs of human beings. There are many useful applications of the solar energy in day-to-day life, with many advantages over the traditional alternate energy resources. Solar energy is completely free. Sure, there is an initial capital cost but once you have made the investment the energy harvested from the sun costs you nothing. Solar Energy Is Cost Effective. The technology is growing rapidly as is production – and as a result the costs involved are coming down and is now cost effective. Payback times for domestic systems can be as short as THREE years. As coal, gas and oil prices continue to rise solar energy will become a viable alternative. Finally solar energy is clean. It is a clean alternative to fossil fuels and nuclear power and it will never run out. It’s silent.
Parabolic troughs, dishes and towers described in this section are used almost exclusively in solar power generating stations or for research purposes. The conversion efficiency of a solar collector is expressed as eta0 or η0. This type of collector is generally used in solar power plants. A trough-shaped parabolic reflector is used to concentrate sunlight on an insulated tube (Dewar tube) or heat pipe, placed at the focal point, containing coolant which transfers heat from the collectors to the boilers in the power station.
A solar tracker is a device for orienting a day lighting reflector, solar photovoltaic panel or concentrating solar reflector or lens toward the sun. The sun’s position in the sky varies both with the seasons and time of day as the sun moves across the sky. Solar powered equipment works best when pointed at or near the sun, so a solar tracker can increase the effectiveness of such equipment over any fixed position, at the cost of additional system complexity. There are many types of solar trackers, of varying costs, sophistication, and performance.
In our innovating idea we have done, increased the output efficiency of the solar cell using the solar collector (sun tracker) and the parabolic trough, and the life of the solar panel too. The solar collector and the parabolic reflector increase the temperature of the solar cells, which is indeed a devastating condition for the solar cells. Hence we provided it with a water cooling system, promising the long life of the solar cells.
FEATURES OF PROJECT
PRODUCTION OF SOLAR ENERGY.
THE PARABOLIC REFLECTOR.
THE SUN TRACKER
WATER COOLING SYSTEM.
THE 100 WATT INVERTER.
LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION MODULE.
BY THE ABOVE FEATURES WE CAN EASILY ACHIEVE THE FOLLOWING:
Ø Implementation of Solar Energy is clean, renewable (unlike gas, oil and coal) and sustainable, helping to protect our environment.
To enhance the efficiency of solar cells using the reflector
To increase the life of the solar cell enabling it with a water cool system.
Efficiency of the solar cell is increased up to 70% providing the cells with a sun tracker.
Suggesting a system which is free from energy loses.
Implementation of L.E.D lightening system.
Enabling the environment with temperature controlled appliances.
The use of solar energy indirectly reduces health costs.
After the initial investment has been recovered, the energy from the sun is practically FREE; the recovery/ payback period for this investment can be very short.
While solar photovoltaic are still relatively expensive,, the technology is growing rapidly as is production – and as a result the costs involved are coming down and is now cost effective.
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
According to some experts, the sun is our best source of renewable, clean energy. Some estimate that the sun can produce 10,000 times as much energy as the Earth uses at the turn of the 21st century. The future of solar energy depends mostly on how it is applied, rather than whether it would be enough energy to be a viable world power source. A solar plant is comprised of thousands of solar panels, not unlike those currently installed on alternative energy homes. Because of this, solar plants require a consistently sunny area and a considerable amount of space. Currently, the one of the largest solar power stations in the world covers more than 10 square miles (16.9 km squared) and creates enough power to run about 200,000 homes. Some experts suggest that to provide power for the entire United States, an area approximately 100 miles (160.9 km) per side would be required, probably somewhere in the desert climate of the American Southwest. In addition to building more and larger plants, the future of solar energy lies in the construction of new buildings and the retro-fitting of many older ones. As long as the trend toward alternative energy supplies continues, some experts predict that most, if not all, new buildings will have solar-energy panels installed on roofs. Since these are also easily installed, many older buildings may receive upgrades to run on solar power. Experts and environmentalists hope that green-energy building will be encouraged by world government through generous tax incentives and exemptions for alternative energy use.
Although initial start-up costs are steep, the benefits are enormous.
First, engineers, architects, construction crews and others have to plan and build the facility. Once built, at least a small group of people must operate it. So, it does help to create jobs. Any energy it generates helps to offset the use of fossil fuels, a good thing for the environment, our overseas balance of payments and possibly even generating some political capital. When compared to wind power, however, solar is expensive and produces far less return on investment. However, as solar sites grow in size (and each year begets bigger farms), the cost per kilowatt produced will surely decrease. Solar power can be harnessed across almost the entire U.S., large parts of southern and central Europe, Australia and even southern Canada.
CURRENT ELECTRICITY CRISES IN PAKISTAN
The latest crisis that has Pakistani’s from all walks of life up in arms is the lack of electrical power throughout the country. While rolling blackouts or load shedding as its locally known has always been a staple of daily life in Pakistan, the problem has become acute in the last couple of years. In the second half of December, the situation got so bad that WAPDA & KESC (power generation entities in Pakistan) resorted to draconian levels of load shedding. The power cuts during this time amounted to 20-22 hours a day in most small cities and even cities like Karachi were seeing 18+ hours of load shedding. The total installed capacity of WAPDA and KESC totals around 19,500 megawatts. Almost two third of this power comes from thermal power plants (fossil fuels), one third is generated by water and about 2% comes from nuclear power plants.
THE PROJECT HAS THE CAPABILITY OF REDUCING THE LACKING OF ELECTRICITY AND THE PROVIDING IT WITH A SOLUTION THAT IS ATMOSPHERE FRIENDLY.